Seismic Ambient Noise (seislib.an
)
As shown in several theoretical studies, the cross correlation of seismic ambient noise can be related to the surface-wave Green’s function between the two points of observation [1]. In case of a diffuse ambient wave-field recorded at two receivers on the vertical component, the empirical Rayleigh-wave Green’s function has a relatively simple expression, that can be employed to constrain the velocity structure of the Earth’s interior. In the frequency domain, this is proportional to a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind (\(J_0\)), and reads [2]
where \(\Delta\), \(\omega\), and c denote inter-station distance, angular frequency, and phase velocity, respectively, \(\rho\) the statistical expectation of the normalized cross-spectrum associated with the two ambient-noise recordings, and \(\Re{\big\lbrace \dotso \big\rbrace}\) maps a complex number into its real part. The exponential damping term in the above equation accounts for the (possibly frequency-dependent) attenuation of the Rayleigh waves propagating between the two receivers \({\bf x}_A\) and \({\bf x}_B\), through the coefficient \(\alpha\) [2].
In ambient-noise seismology, where continuous seismograms of relatively long duration (months or years) are employed, the statistical expectation of \(\rho\) is replaced by an ensemble average of the cross-spectra calculated over a relatively large number of time windows. This contributes to approximating the condition of a diffuse ambient wave-field [1], allowing the use of the above equation to measure the (average) inter-station phase velocity.
In practice, SeisLib makes use of the above equation to calculate
- Rayleigh and Love phase velocities:
since phase velocity is related to the phase of the empirical Green’s function, but not to its amplitude, the exponential damping term is neglected, simplifying the problem of retrieving c from the data. This approach resulted in numerous successful applications of velocity imaging and monitoring, and can nowadays be considered standard in ambient-noise tomography [3].
- Rayleigh-wave attenuation:
where the attenuation coefficient is retrieved by nonlinear inversion based on preliminary measurements of phase velocity [2].
References
- 1(1,2)
Boschi & Weemstra, (2015), Reviews of Geophysics Stationary-phase integrals in the cross correlation, Reviews of Geophysics
- 2(1,2,3)
Magrini & Boschi, (2021), Surface‐Wave Attenuation From Seismic Ambient Noise: Numerical Validation and Application, JGR
- 3
Nakata et al., (2019), Seismic ambient noise, Cambridge University Press
Download of Continuous Seismograms
The below class allows for automated downloads of continuous seismograms
to be used in seismic-ambient-noise tomography. The data will be saved on
disk in the format required by seislib.an.AmbientNoiseVelocity
and seislib.an.AmbientNoiseAttenuation
to calculate
surface-wave dispersion curves and Rayleigh-wave attenuation, respectively.
- class seislib.an._an_downloader.ANDownloader(savedir, inventory_name, provider='iris', user=None, password=None, duration=43200, sampling_rate=1, units='disp', prefilter=(0.005, 0.01, 0.25, 0.5), attach_response=False, stations_config={}, sleep_time_after_exception=10, verbose=True, reversed_iterations=False, max_final_stream_duration=126144000)
Bases:
object
Downloads seismic data to be used in ambient noise interferometry
- Parameters
- savedirstr
Absolute path to the directory where the data will be saved. Inside this, a sub-directory named ‘data’ will be created, inside which the continuous data will be stored in the format net.sta.loc.cha.sac. (net=network code, sta=station, loc=location, cha=channel)
- inventory_namestr
Name of the inventory (obspy.core.inventory.inventory.Inventory) associated with the downloads. This will be saved in xml format in the savedir
- providerstr
Provider of seismic data, passed to obspy.clients.fdsn.Client. Default is iris
- user, passwordstr, optional
User name and password for accessing restricted data. Passed to obspy.clients.fdsn.Client
- durationfloat, optional
Duration (in seconds) of the individual seismic waveforms to be downloaded. They will be merged together once all individual waveforms from a given station are downloaded. Default is 43200s, i.e., 12h.
- sampling_ratefloat
Final sampling rate of the waveforms, in Hz. Default is 1 Hz
- prefiltertuple of floats
Bandapass filter applied to the waveforms before removing the intrument response. Default is (0.005, 0.01, 0.25, 0.5).
- units{‘DISP’, ‘VEL’, ‘ACC’}
Physical units of the final waveforms. Can be either ‘DISP’, ‘VEL’, or ‘ACC’ (case insensitive). Default is ‘DISP’.
- attach_responsebool
If True, the details of the instrument response are attached to the header of the waveforms during their downloads. It can slow down the downloads, but it will make errors due to response information less likely. Default is False
- stations_configdict
python dictionary containing optional keys and values passed to obspy.clients.fdsn.Client.get_stations.
- sleep_time_after_exceptionfloat
Time to wait (in seconds) after an obspy.clients.fdsn.header.FDSNException. The exception could be due to temporal issues of the client, so waiting a little bit before the next download could be useful to get things back to normality.
- verbosebool
If True, information on the downloads will be printed in console
- reversed_iterationsbool
If True, the station inventory will be iterated over in a reversed order.
- max_final_stream_durationfloat
Maximum lenght (in seconds) of the continuous waveforms. Default is 126144000s, i.e. 4 years. By default, when more than 4 years of data are available, the first 4 years are stored in the ‘data’ directory with the conventional name net.sta.loc.cha.sac; the following batches are saved as net.sta.loc.cha_1.sac (for the 4th-8th years of data), net.sta.loc.cha_2.sac (for the 8th-12th years), net.sta.loc.cha_3.sac (for the 12th-16th years), etc.
Examples
The following will download all the continuous waveforms available from the 1.1.2020 to the 1.1.2021 for the network II and for the channel BH (3 components: BHZ, BHE, BHN), within the region specified by minlatitude, maxlatitude, minlongitude, maxlongitude. Since we do not have access to restricted data, in this case, includerestricted is set to False. See obspy documentation on Client.get_stations for more info on the possible arguments passed to stations_config:
from obspy import UTCDateTime as UTC stations_config = dict(network='II', channel='BH*', starttime=UTC(2020, 1, 1), endtime=UTC(2021, 1, 1), includerestricted=False, maxlatitude=12, minlatitude=-18, minlongitude=90, maxlongitude=140)
Note
If channel is not specified in stations_config, the default will be ‘HH*’ (i.e., HHZ, HHE, HHN). Multiple channels can be passed using a comma as, e.g., ‘HH*,BH*’, or ‘HHZ,BHZ’. In the downloads, priority is given to the first specified channel (in the above, the BH* is downloaded only if HH* is not available).
We initialize the ANDownloader instance, and then start it:
from seislib.an import ANDownloader downloader = ANDownloader(savedir=/path/to/directory, inventory_name='II.xml', provider='iris', sampling_rate=1, prefilter=(0.005, 0.01, 0.5, 1), units='disp', attach_response=False, stations_config=stations_config, verbose=True) downloader.start()
Note
You can kill the above process without any fear: the next time you will run the code, it will pick up where it left off.
Hint
If instead you want to modify your station_configs, make sure to either delete the .xml file created at the previous run of the algorithm or use a different inventory_name!
- Attributes
- savedirstr
Absolute path of the directory that will be created
- staclientobspy.clients.fdsn.Client
Provider of station metadata and waveforms
- channelslist
List of candidate channels for the downloads
- componentsint
Either 3 (ZNE) or 1 (Z)
- durationint, float
Duration of the waveforms downloaded (in s)
- max_final_stream_durationfloat
Maximum duration of the final continuous seismograms
- sampling_ratefloat
Sampling rate of the final seismograms
- prefiltertuple of floats
Filter applied to the waveform before removal of the instrument response
- unitsstr
Physical units of the final seismogram
- attach_responsebool
Whether or not the response information is attached to the waveforms during the download
- verbosebool
Whether or not progress information are displayed in the console
- reversed_iterationsbool
Whether or not the inventory of stations is reversely iterated over
- sleep_time_after_exceptionfloat
The downloads are stopped for the specified time (in s) after a FDSN exception
- stations_configdict
Dictionary object with information relevant to the download of the station metadata
- inventoryobspy.core.inventory.inventory.Inventory
Stations metadata
- _exceptionscollections.defaultdict(int)
Dictionary object with information on the occurred exceptions
- _downloadedint
Number of waveforms downloaded
- _no_stationsint
Number of stations to download
- _stations_doneint
Number of stations for which the downloads have been finished
Methods
active_channels
(station)Channels available for the given station among those to download
adjust_channels
(st)If the stream contains the Z12 channels, these are rotated towards ZNE.
build_inventory
(**kwargs)Builds an obspy inventory containing stations information
collect_waveforms
(network, station, ...)Downloads obspy stream
compile_header
(stream, stla, stlo, stel)Returns the obspy stream with the header compiled in sac format.
endtime_for_download
(station)Gives the end time of the last time window to be downloaded for a given station
handle_multiple_locations
(st, station_info)Automatic selection of location.
inventory_iterator
(inventory[, reverse])Generator function to iterate over an obspy inventory
last_time_downloaded
(tmp_folder)Retrieves the last time downloaded at the previous run of the algorithm
merge_days_and_save
(station_code)Merges all temporary files and saves them as a unique file in the 'data' directory.
Utility function to print an obspy.UTCDateTime in a nice way
plot_stations
([ax, show, oceans_color, ...])Maps the seismic receivers available for download.
prepare_data
(st)Demean, detrend, tapering, removing response and resampling
preprocessing
(st, station)Preprocessing of the obspy stream
save_tmp_files
(stream, outdir, starttime)Saves temporary files (of duration equal to self.duration) that will be merged and saved in the 'data' directory
Handles the absence of some components in the final stream
starttime_for_download
(tmp_folder, station)Identifies the start time from which the downloads will begin for a given station
station_coordinates
(station_info)Fetch station coordinates (lat, lon, elevation).
station_was_active
(station, time)Wheater or not the seismic station was active at the given time
update_done_stations
(station_code)Updates the 'done_stations.txt' file in the /tmp directory
update_stats
([stations, downloaded])Updates information on number of downloaded waveforms and done stations
start
- active_channels(station)
Channels available for the given station among those to download
- Parameters
- stationobspy.core.inventory.station.Station
- Returns
- List of channels
- adjust_channels(st)
If the stream contains the Z12 channels, these are rotated towards ZNE.
- Parameters
- stobspy.core.stream.Stream
- Returns
- obspy.core.stream.Stream if the rotation is successful, else None
- build_inventory(**kwargs)
Builds an obspy inventory containing stations information
The strategy is to first download inventory information at station level. Then, for each station, the instrument response is downloaded for each channel. This may increase the downloading time, but prevents possible “timed out errors”.
- Parameters
- kwargs :
Additional key word arguments passed to the get_stations method of obspy.clients.fdsn.client
- Returns
- invobspy.core.inventory.inventory.Inventory
- collect_waveforms(network, station, channels, starttime, endtime)
Downloads obspy stream
- Parameters
- network, station, locationstr
network, station and location codes
- channelsiterable
iterable containing the channel codes suited to the download. Each channel will be tried to be used in the downloads. The first successfull attempt determines the returned waveforms. (Higher priority is given to decreasing indexes)
- starttime, endtimeobspy.core.utcdatetime.UTCDateTime
start and end time of the stream.
- Returns
- obspy.core.stream.Stream if the download is successful, else None
- compile_header(stream, stla, stlo, stel)
Returns the obspy stream with the header compiled in sac format.
- Parameters
- streamobspy.core.stream.Stream
- stla, stlo, stelfloat
latitude, longitude, elevation of the seismic station
- Returns
- obspy.core.stream.Stream
- endtime_for_download(station)
Gives the end time of the last time window to be downloaded for a given station
- Parameters
- stationobspy.core.inventory.station.Station
- Returns
- obspy.core.utcdatetime.UTCDateTime
- handle_multiple_locations(st, station_info)
Automatic selection of location.
- Parameters
- stobspy.core.stream.Stream
- station_infoobspy.core.inventory.station.Station
- Returns
- Obspy stream
- classmethod inventory_iterator(inventory, reverse=False)
Generator function to iterate over an obspy inventory
- Parameters
- inventoryobspy.core.inventory.inventory.Inventory
- reversebool
If True, the inventory will be iterated over from bottom to top
- Yields
- (2,) tuple containing network and station information at each iteration
- last_time_downloaded(tmp_folder)
Retrieves the last time downloaded at the previous run of the algorithm
- Parameters
- tmp_folderstr
Absolute path to the temporary directory where the individual waveforms associated with a given station are saved
- Returns
- obspy.core.utcdatetime.UTCDateTime.timestamp if files are present in the
temporary directory, else None
- merge_days_and_save(station_code)
Merges all temporary files and saves them as a unique file in the ‘data’ directory. If these files exceed self.max_final_stream_duration, they are splitted and saved in several batches.
- Parameters
- station_codestr
Station code in the format net.sta
- classmethod operating_times_formatter()
Utility function to print an obspy.UTCDateTime in a nice way
- Parameters
- stationobspy.core.inventory.station.Station
- Returns
- start, endstr
Starting and ending operating time of the seismic station
- plot_stations(ax=None, show=True, oceans_color='water', lands_color='land', edgecolor='k', projection='Mercator', resolution='110m', color_by_network=True, legend_dict={}, **kwargs)
Maps the seismic receivers available for download.
- Parameters
- axcartopy.mpl.geoaxes.GeoAxesSubplot
If not None, the receivers are plotted on the GeoAxesSubplot instance. Otherwise, a new figure and GeoAxesSubplot instance is created
- showbool
If True, the plot is shown. Otherwise, a GeoAxesSubplot instance is returned. Default is True
- oceans_color, lands_colorstr
Color of oceans and lands. The arguments are ignored if ax is not None. Otherwise, they are passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature (to the argument ‘facecolor’). Defaults are ‘water’ and ‘land’
- edgecolorstr
Color of the boundaries between, e.g., lakes and land. The argument is ignored if ax is not None. Otherwise, it is passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature (to the argument ‘edgecolor’). Default is ‘k’ (black)
- projectionstr
Name of the geographic projection used to create the GeoAxesSubplot. (Visit the cartopy website for a list of valid projection names.) If ax is not None, projection is ignored. Default is ‘Mercator’
- resolution{‘10m’, ‘50m’, ‘110m’}
Resolution of the Earth features displayed in the figure. Passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature. Valid arguments are ‘110m’, ‘50m’, ‘10m’. Default is ‘110m’. Ignored if ax is not None.
- color_by_networkbool
If True, each seismic network will have a different color in the resulting map, and a legend will be displayed. Otherwise, all stations will have the same color. Default is True
- legend_dictdict, optional
Dictionary of keyword arguments passed to matplotlib.pyplot.legend
- **kwargsdict, optional
Additional keyword arguments passed to matplotlib.pyplot.scatter
- Returns
- If show is True, None, else ax, i.e. the GeoAxesSubplot
- prepare_data(st)
Demean, detrend, tapering, removing response and resampling
- Parameters
- stobspy.core.stream.Stream
- Returns
- obspy.core.stream.Stream if the processing is successful, else None
- preprocessing(st, station)
Preprocessing of the obspy stream
The function calls sequentially the methods
handle_multiple_locations()
,prepare_data()
, andadjust_channels()
.- Parameters
- stobspy.core.stream.Stream
- stationobspy.core.inventory.station.Station
- Returns
- obspy.core.stream.Stream if the preprocessing is successful, else None
- save_tmp_files(stream, outdir, starttime)
Saves temporary files (of duration equal to self.duration) that will be merged and saved in the ‘data’ directory
- Parameters
- streamobspy.core.stream.Stream
- outdirstr
Absolute path to saving directory
- starttimestr, float (timestamp format)
Starttime of the stream, only used to name the temporary file
- select_components(st)
Handles the absence of some components in the final stream
- Parameters
- stobspy.Stream
- Returns
- stobspy.Stream
If the expected three-component stream lacks of one or both the horizontal components, the vertical component is returned. If the stream lacks the vertical component but has the two horizontal ones, it returns the horizontal components. If only one horizontal component is available, it returns None.
- start()
- starttime_for_download(tmp_folder, station)
Identifies the start time from which the downloads will begin for a given station
- Parameters
- tmp_folderstr
Absolute path to the temporary folder where the individual waveforms associated with a given station are saved
- stationobspy.core.inventory.station.Station
- Returns
- obspy.core.utcdatetime.UTCDateTime
- classmethod station_coordinates(station_info)
Fetch station coordinates (lat, lon, elevation).
- Parameters
- station_infoobspy.core.inventory.station.Station
- Returns
- latitude, longitude, elevationfloat
- classmethod station_was_active(station, time)
Wheater or not the seismic station was active at the given time
- Parameters
- stationobspy.core.inventory.station.Station
- timeobspy.core.utcdatetime.UTCDateTime
- Returns
- bool
- update_done_stations(station_code)
Updates the ‘done_stations.txt’ file in the /tmp directory
- Parameters
- station_codestr
Station code in the format net.sta
- update_stats(stations=False, downloaded=False)
Updates information on number of downloaded waveforms and done stations
- Parameters
- stations, downloadedbool
If True, the attributes _stations_done and _downloaded are updated.
Inter-Station Dispersion Curves
The below class provides automated routines to calculate Rayleigh and Love inter-station dispersion curves based on the continuous seismograms recorded at pairs of receivers.
- class seislib.an._an_velocity.AmbientNoiseVelocity(src, savedir=None, component='Z', verbose=True)
Bases:
object
Class to obtain surface-wave phase velocities out of continuous seismograms, via cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise.
- Parameters
- srcstr
Absolute path to the directory containing the files associated with the continuous seismograms
- savedirstr, optional
Absolute path to the directory where the results are saved. If not provided, its value is set to the parent directory of src (i.e., $src/..). All the results will be saved in the directory $savedir/an_velocity/$component (see the component parameter)
- component{‘Z’, ‘R’, ‘T’}
Either ‘Z’, ‘R’, (corresponding to vertically and radially polarized Rayleigh waves, respectively), or ‘T’ (for Love waves)
- verbosebool
Whether or not information on progress is printed in the console
Examples
The following will calculate the dispersion curves for a set of continuous seismograms stored in the directory src=’/path/to/data’. The data have been downloaded using :class:seislib.an.an_downloader.ANDownloader. We extract dispersion curves for vertically-polarized Rayleigh waves (on the vertical - Z - component).
>>> from seislib.an import AmbientNoiseVelocity >>> an = AmbientNoiseVelocity( ... src=src, ... component='Z') >>> print(an) RAYLEIGH-WAVE VELOCITY FROM SEISMIC AMBIENT NOISE ================================================== RECEIVERS: X STATION PAIRS AVAILABLE: Y DISPERSION CURVES RETRIEVED: 0 ================================================== SOURCE DIR: /path/to/data SAVE DIR: /path/to/an_velocity/Z
In the above printed information X and Y are integers and depend on your data.
Before extracting the dispersion curves, we need to run:
an.prepare_data()
which will extract information on each seismic receiver from the header of the sac files. These include (i) station coordinates and (ii) the time window spanned by the associated seismogram. The information is saved into two separate files, i.e., /path/to/an_velocity/Z/stations.pickle and /path/to/an_velocity/Z/timespans.pickle. These include (i) stations coordinates and (ii) the time window spanned by the associated seismograms.
Note
If the files containing the continuous seismograms do not have a sac header, or if they have a different extension than .sac, the user can create the two above files on his own, before calling the prepare_data method. (However, each file name should be in the format net.sta.loc.cha’, where net, sta, and loc (optional) are network, station, and location code, respectively, and cha is channel (e.g., BHZ, BHN, or BHE). (If the component is R or T, the NE channels will be loaded and rotated during the calculation of the phase velocities.) For example, IV.AQU.00.BHZ.
The stations.pickle file should contain a dictionary object where each key corresponds to a station code ($net.$sta) and each value should be a tuple containing latitude and longitude of the station. For example:
{ net1.sta1 : (lat1, lon1), net1.sta2 : (lat2, lon2)}
The timespans.pickle file should contain a dictionary object where each key corresponds to a station code ($net.$sta) and each value should be a tuple containing the starttime and endtime (obspy.UTCDateTime.timestamp) of the continuous seismogram associated with the station. For example:
{net1.sta1 : (starttime1, endtime1), net1.sta2 : (starttime2, endtime2)}
After the data have been “prepared”, the receivers available can be displayed by typing:
an.plot_stations()
Now we can calculate the dispersion curves automatically, provided that we pass a reference curve (i.e., ndarray of shape (n, 2), where the 1st column is frequency, the 2nd is phase velocity). For example:
an.extract_dispcurves(refcurve, freqmin=0.01, freqmax=0.5, cmin=1.5, cmax=4.5, distmax=2000, window_length=3600, overlap=0.5, min_no_days=30)
The above will calculate the dispersion curves for all combinations of station pairs for which the inter-station distance is < 2000 km and at least 30 days of simultaneous recordings are available. Cross-correlations will be computed in the frequency range 0.01-0.5 Hz on 50%-overlapping time windows. The results (ndarrays of shape (m, 2), where the 1st column is frequency and the 2nd is phase velocity) will be saved to /path/to/an_velocity/Z/dispcurves.
- Attributes
- srcstr
Absolute path to the directory containing the files associated with the continuous seismograms
- savedirstr
Absolute path to the directory where the results are saved
- component{‘Z’, ‘R’, ‘T’}
Either ‘Z’, ‘R’, or ‘T’
- fileslist
List of files to be processed to calculate the dispersion curves
- verbosebool
Whether or not information on progress is printed in the console
- stationsdict
Station coordinates that can be employed to retrieve dispersion curves (can be accessed after calling the method
prepare_data()
)
Methods
convert_to_kms
(dispcurve)Converts from m/s to km/s the dispersion curve (if necessary).
extract_dispcurves
(refcurve[, freqmin, ...])Automatic extraction of the dispersion curves for all available pairs of receivers.
Retrieves the files to be processed for extracting the phase velocities
get_times_and_coords
(files)Retrieves the geographic coordinates and the starting and ending time associated with each continuous seismogram
interpolate_dispcurves
(frequency)Interpolates the dispersion curves found at $self.savedir/dispcurves at the specified frequency.
plot_stations
([ax, show, oceans_color, ...])Maps the seismic receivers for which data are available
prepare_data
([recompute])Saves to disk the geographic coordinates and the starting and ending time associated with each continuous seismogram.
prepare_input_tomography
(savedir, period[, ...])Prepares a .txt file for each specified period, to be used for calculating phase-velocity maps using
seislib.tomography.tomography.SeismicTomography
.- classmethod convert_to_kms(dispcurve)
Converts from m/s to km/s the dispersion curve (if necessary).
- Parameters
- dispcurvendarray of shape (n, 2)
The 1st column (typically frequency or period) is ignored. The 2nd should be velocity. If the 1st value of velocity divided by 10 is greater than 1, the 2nd column is divided by 1000. Otherwise, the dispersion curve is left unchanged.
- Returns
- dispcurvendarray of shape (n, 2)
- extract_dispcurves(refcurve, freqmin=0.01, freqmax=0.5, cmin=1.5, cmax=4.5, distmax=None, window_length=3600, overlap=0.5, min_no_days=30, reverse_iteration=False, save_xcorr=False, plotting=False, manual_picking=False, show=True)
Automatic extraction of the dispersion curves for all available pairs of receivers.
The results are saved to $self.savedir/dispcurves in .npy format, and consist of ndarrays of shape (n, 2), where the 1st column is frequency and the 2nd phase velocity (in m/s).
The routine iterates over all the available combinations of station pairs and, for each one, (i) computes the cross spectrum (in the frequency domain) by ensamble averaging the cross correlations calculated over relatively small (and possibly overlapping, see overlap) time windows (see window_length), (ii) filters the cross-spectrum using a “velocity” filter [1], and (iii) extracts a smooth dispersion curve by comparison of the zero-crossings of the cross-spectrum with those of the Bessel function associated with the station pair in question [2].
- Parameters
- refcurvendarray of shape (n, 2)
Reference curve used to extract the dispersion curves. The 1st column should be frequency, the 2nd velocity (in either km/s or m/s). The reference curve is automatically converted to km/s, the physical units employed in the subsequent analysis
- freqmin, freqmaxfloat
Minimum and maximum frequency analysed by the algorithm (default are 0.01 and 0.5 Hz). The resulting dispersion curves will be limited to this frequency range
- cmin, cmaxfloat
Estimated velocity range (in km/s) spanned by the dispersion curves (default values are 1.5 and 4.5)
- distmaxfloat
Maximum inter-station distance (in km), beyond which a given station pair is not considered in the calculation of the phase velocities
- window_lenghtfloat
Length of the time windows (in s) used to perform the cross correlations
- overlapfloat
Should be >=0 and <1 (strictly smaller than 1). Rules the extent of overlap between one time window and the following [3]. Default is 0.5
- min_no_daysint, float
Minimum number of simultaneous recordings available for a given station pair to be considered for the extraction of phase velocity. Default is 30
- reverse_iterationbool
If True, the list of combinations of station pairs will be iterated over reversely. This can be useful to run two processes in parallel so as to halve the computation times (one function call setting reverse_iteration`=`False, the other, in a different process, setting it to True). Default is False
- save_xcorrbool
If True, cross-correlations will be saved in $self.savedir/xcorr
- plottingbool
If True, a figure is created for each retrieved dispersion curve. This is automatically displayed and saved in $self.savedir/figures
- manual_pickingbool
If True, the user is required to pick each dispersion curve manually. The picking is carried out through an interactive plot
- showbool
If False, the figure is closed before being shown. This is only relevant when the user has the interactive plot enabled: in that case, the figure will not be displayed. Default is True
- Returns
- None
The dispersion curves are saved to $self.savedir/dispcurves
References
- 1
Magrini & Boschi, (2021), Surface‐Wave Attenuation From Seismic Ambient Noise: Numerical Validation and Application, JGR
- 2
Kästle et al. 2016, Two-receiver measurements of phase velocity: cross- validation of ambient-noise and earthquake-based observations, GJI
- 3
Seats et al. 2012, Improved ambient noise correlation functions using Welch’s method, GJI
- get_files()
Retrieves the files to be processed for extracting the phase velocities
- Returns
- fileslist of str
e.g. [‘net1.sta1.00.BHZ.sac’, ‘net1.sta2.00.BHZ.sac’]
- get_times_and_coords(files)
Retrieves the geographic coordinates and the starting and ending time associated with each continuous seismogram
- Parameters
- files: list of str
Names of the files corresponding with the continuous seismograms, located in the src directory
- Returns
- timesdict
each key corresponds to a station code ($network_code.$station_code) and each value is a tuple containing the starttime and endtime (in timestamp format, see obspy documentation on UTCDateTime.timestamp) of the continuous seismogram associated with the station. For example:
{ net1.sta1 : (starttime1, endtime1), net1.sta2 : (starttime2, endtime2), net2.sta3 : (starttime3, endtime3) }
- coordsdict
each key corresponds to a station code ($network_code.$station_code) and each value is a tuple containing latitude and longitude of the station. For example:
{ net1.sta1 : (lat1, lon1), net1.sta2 : (lat2, lon2), net2.sta3 : (lat3, lon3) }
- interpolate_dispcurves(frequency)
Interpolates the dispersion curves found at $self.savedir/dispcurves at the specified frequency. (No extrapolation is made.)
- Parameters
- frequencyfloat, iterable of floats
Frequency (or frequencies) at which the dispersion curves will be interpolated
- Returns
- codesndarray of shape (n, 2)
Codes associated with the station pairs for which a dispersion curve has been calculated
- coordsndarray of shape (n, 4)
Coordinates (lat1, lon1, lat2, lon2) of the station pairs corresponding to the station codes
- measurementsndarray of shape (n, f)
Phase velocities calculated for each station pair in coords at the specified frequency. f is the number of frequencies
Note
measurements could contain nans
Examples
Assume you calculated dispersion curves from your data, which are located in /path/to/data, and you had initialized your class:AmbientNoiseVelocity instance, to calculate inter-station dispersion curves, as:
an = AmbientNoiseVelocity(src=SRC, component='Z') an.prepare_data()
Even if the computation of the dispersion curves is not yet finished, you can use the above instance to interpolate all the available dispersion curves as follows:
frequency = [1/30, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5] codes, coords, measurements = an.interpolate_dispcurves(frequency)
- plot_stations(ax=None, show=True, oceans_color='water', lands_color='land', edgecolor='k', projection='Mercator', resolution='110m', color_by_network=True, legend_dict={}, **kwargs)
Maps the seismic receivers for which data are available
- Parameters
- axcartopy.mpl.geoaxes.GeoAxesSubplot
If not None, the receivers are plotted on the GeoAxesSubplot instance. Otherwise, a new figure and GeoAxesSubplot instance is created
- showbool
If True, the plot is shown. Otherwise, a GeoAxesSubplot instance is returned. Default is True
- oceans_color, lands_colorstr
Color of oceans and lands. The arguments are ignored if ax is not None. Otherwise, they are passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature (to the argument ‘facecolor’). Defaults are ‘water’ and ‘land’
- edgecolorstr
Color of the boundaries between, e.g., lakes and land. The argument is ignored if ax is not None. Otherwise, it is passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature (to the argument ‘edgecolor’). Default is ‘k’ (black)
- projectionstr
Name of the geographic projection used to create the GeoAxesSubplot. (Visit the cartopy website for a list of valid projection names.) If ax is not None, projection is ignored. Default is ‘Mercator’
- resolution{‘10m’, ‘50m’, ‘110m’}
Resolution of the Earth features displayed in the figure. Passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature. Valid arguments are ‘110m’, ‘50m’, ‘10m’. Default is ‘110m’. Ignored if ax is not None.
- color_by_networkbool
If True, each seismic network will have a different color in the resulting map, and a legend will be displayed. Otherwise, all stations will have the same color. Default is True
- legend_dictdict, optional
Dictionary of keyword arguments passed to matplotlib.pyplot.legend
- **kwargsdict, optional
Additional keyword arguments passed to matplotlib.pyplot.scatter
- Returns
- If show is True, None, else ax, i.e. the GeoAxesSubplot
- prepare_data(recompute=False)
Saves to disk the geographic coordinates and the starting and ending time associated with each continuous seismogram. These are saved to $self.savedir/stations.pickle and $self.savedir/timespans.pickle, respectively.
The stations.pickle file contains a dictionary object where each key corresponds to a station code ($network_code.$station_code) and each value is a tuple containing latitude and longitude of the station. For example:
{ net1.sta1 : (lat1, lon1), net1.sta2 : (lat2, lon2), net2.sta3 : (lat3, lon3) }
The timespans.pickle file contains a dictionary object similar to the above, where each value is a tuple containing the starttime and endtime (obspy.UTCDateTime.timestamp) of the continuous seismogram associated with the station. For example:
{ net1.sta1 : (starttime1, endtime1), net1.sta2 : (starttime2, endtime2), net2.sta3 : (starttime3, endtime3) }
- Parameters
- recomputebool
If True, the station coordinates and times will be removed from disk and recalculated. Otherwise (default), if they are present, they will be loaded into memory, avoiding any computation. This parameter should be set to True whenever one has added new files to the source directory (and has not updated manually stations.pickle and timespans.pickle).
Notes
If component is ‘Z’, only continuous seismograms recorded on the vertical component are considered (e.g., BHZ).
If component is either ‘R’ or ‘T’, however, for a given station to be considered in the calculation of phase velocities both the horizontal components (N and E, e.g. BHN and BHE) should be available. These will be rotated so as to analyse the transverse (T, for Love) and radial (R, for radially-polarized Rayleigh waves) components
- prepare_input_tomography(savedir, period, min_no_wavelengths=2, outfile='input_%.2fs.txt')
Prepares a .txt file for each specified period, to be used for calculating phase-velocity maps using
seislib.tomography.tomography.SeismicTomography
.- Parameters
- savedirstr
Absolute path to the directory where the file(s) is (are) saved. If savedir does not exist, it will be created
- periodfloat, iterable of floats
Period (or periods) at which the dispersion curves will be interpolated (see
interpolate_dispcurves()
)- min_no_wavelengthsfloat
Ratio between the estimated wavelength \(\lambda = T c_{ref}\) of the surface-wave at a given period T and interstation distance \(\Delta\). Whenever this ratio is > min_no_wavelength, the period in question is not used to retrieve a dispersion measurement. Values < 1 are suggested against. Default is 2
- outfilestr
Format for the file names. It must include either %s or %.Xf (where X is integer), since this will be replaced by each period analysed (one for file)
Examples
Assume you calculated dispersion curves from your data, which are located in /path/to/data, and you had initialized your class:AmbientNoiseVelocity instance, to calculate inter-station dispersion curves, as:
an = AmbientNoiseVelocity(src=SRC, component='Z') an.prepare_data()
You can, even if the computation of the dispersion curves is not finished, use the above instance to extract the information needed to produce phase-velocity maps as follows:
savedir = /arbitrary/path/to/savedir periods = [5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20] an.prepare_input_tomography(savedir=savedir, period=periods)
The above will save one txt file for each specified period.
Rayleigh-Wave Attenuation
The below class provides support for calculating Rayleigh-Wave attenuation based on continuous ambient-noise recordings of a dense seismic array.
As opposed to the problem of calculating phase velocities, which are only related to the phase of the empirical Green’s function, estimates of attenuation should rely on its amplitude. Previous studies showed how the amplitude of the empirical Green’s function should be treated with caution, because of its sensitivity to parameters such as the distribution of noise sources [1]. Accordingly, [2] designed a procedure that should contribute to “regularizing” the subsequent inversion for the Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficient \(\alpha\), as verified by a suite of numerical tests. Such procedure builds on the previous work of [3], and allows for measuring the frequency-dependency of \(\alpha\).
If we consider a dense seismic array, whose receivers are located at \({\bf x}\), SeisLib first retrieves the normalized cross-spectra associated with each combination of station pairs ij
where u denotes the ambient-noise recording in the frequency domain, \(^{\ast}\) complex conjugation, and \(\Re{\big\lbrace \dotso \big\rbrace}\) maps a complex number into its real part. The normalization term \(\left\langle \vert u({\bf x},\omega) \vert^2 \right\rangle_{\bf x}\) corresponds to the average power spectral density (PSD) recorded by the seismic array.
Then, \(\alpha\) can be constrained by minimizing the cost function [2]
where \(\Delta\), \(\omega\), and c denote inter-station distance, angular frequency, and phase velocity, respectively, and \(J_0\) a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind. The weight \(\Delta_{ij}^2\) is used to compensate for the decrease in the amplitude of \(J_0\) with inter-station distance, due to geometrical spreading, and the envelope function \(\mbox{env}\) has beneficial effects on the stability of the inversion.
In the above equation, phase velocity c is assumed to be known, i.e., it
should be calculated in a preliminary step (see seislib.an.an_velocity
).
The minimum of \(C(\alpha, \omega)\)
can then be found via “grid-search” over \(\alpha\), for a discrete set of
values of \(\omega\). The alert reader might notice at this point that,
since the sum is carried out over all possible combinations of station pairs
belonging to the considered array, only one attenuation curve can be extracted
from such minimization. This strategy, albeit in a sense restrictive, has been
shown to yield robust estimates of the frequency dependency of \(\alpha\)
even in presence of a heterogeneous distribution of noise sources [2]. If
the array has good azimuthal coverage, using all station pairs as an ensemble
in the minimization of \(C(\alpha, \omega)\) allows for sampling most
azimuths of wave propagation. In turn, this should “regularize” the inversion
by decreasing unwanted effects due to inhomogeneities in the distribution of
the noise sources, or compensating for a non-perfectly diffuse ambient seismic
field.
Since the above equation only allows to obtain one attenuation curve for
seismic array, to retrieve the spatial variations in attenuation SeisLib
implements the strategy applied by [4] to USArray data. In practice,
parameterize()
allows for subdividing a given array in many (possibly
overlapping) sub-arrays. These are identified by equal-area blocks of
arbitrary size, and used to obtain one attenuation curve for each of them.
References
- 1
Tsai, (2011). Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements. JGR
- 2(1,2,3)
Magrini & Boschi, (2021). Surface‐Wave Attenuation From Seismic Ambient Noise: Numerical Validation and Application. JGR
- 3
Boschi et al., (2019). On seismic ambient noise cross-correlation and surface-wave attenuation. GJI
- 4
Magrini et al., (2021). Rayleigh-wave attenuation across the conterminous United States in the microseism frequency band. Scientific Reports
- class seislib.an._an_attenuation.AmbientNoiseAttenuation(src, savedir=None, verbose=True)
Bases:
object
Class to obtain Rayleigh-wave attenuation out of continuous seismograms, via cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise.
- Parameters
- srcstr
Absolute path to the directory containing the files associated with the continuous seismograms
- savedirstr
Absolute path to the directory where the results are saved
- verbosebool
Whether or not information on progress is printed in the console
References
- 1
Magrini et al., (2021). Rayleigh-wave attenuation across the conterminous United States in the microseism frequency band. Scientific Reports
- 2
Magrini & Boschi, (2021). Surface‐Wave Attenuation From Seismic Ambient Noise: Numerical Validation and Application. JGR
Examples
In the following, we will calculate an attenuation map for a region characterized by a dense distribution of receivers. When applied to the transportable component of the USArray, the code will produce maps analogous to those in [1]. To do so, we carry out the following steps squentially: (i) define an overlapping parameterization of the study area, (ii) compute the Fourier transforms of our continuous seismograms, (iii) use the thus retrieved Fourier transforms to compute the average power-spectral density in each grid cell of our parameterization; these are used in the calculation of the cross-spectra as normalization term [2]. (iv) Prepare the inversion data-set, for each sub-array associated with each grid cell of our parameterization. This data-set consists of the cross-spectra and of the previously computed inter-station phase velocities. (v) Invert the data-set associated with each grid cell, so as to retrieve one attenuation curve per grid cell, and (vi) plot the results.
First, we need to define an
AmbientNoiseAttenuation
instance, and retrieve the geographic coordinates for each receivers. Our waveform data are in .sac format, with the header compiled with the needed information. (To download seismic data in the proper format, consider usingseislib.an.an_downloader.ANDownloader
) These are stored in /path/to/data. We will save the results in /savedir:src = '/path/to/data' save = '/savedir' an = AmbientNoiseAttenuation(src=src, savedir=save, verbose=True) an.prepare_data()
prepare_data()
will automatically save a station.pickle file in $saveNote
If the files containing the continuous seismograms do not have a sac header, or if they have a different extension than .sac, the user can create the station.pickle file on his own, before calling
prepare_data()
. (However, each file name should be in the format net.sta.loc.cha’, where net, sta, and loc (optional) are network, station, and location code, respectively, and cha is channel (e.g., BHZ, BHN, or BHE). For example, TA.N38A..LHZ.sac.The stations.pickle file should contain a dictionary object where each key corresponds to a station code ($net.$sta) and each value should be a tuple containing latitude and longitude of the station. For example:
{ net1.sta1 : (lat1, lon1), net1.sta2 : (lat2, lon2), net2.sta3 : (lat3, lon3) }
We now parameterize the study area, by means of an equal-area grid of cell dimensions of 2.5°, with a spatial overlap of 50% on both latitude and longitude. Those grid cells containing less than 6 receivers are discarded:
an.parameterize(cell_size=2.5, overlap=0.5, min_no_stations=6)
The above will create the file paramerization.pickle in $save, and set the corresponding dictionary object to the attribute paramterization of an. This can be accessed typing an.parameterization, and will be used under the hood in the following processing. We now compute the Fourier transforms and the cross-spectra. To compute the Fourier transforms, we use time windows of 6h, and in the calculation of the cross spectra we will discard every grid cell for which at least 6 station pairs having at least 30 days of simultaneous recordings are not available. (fs indicates the sampling rate.):
an.compute_ffts(fs=1, window_length=3600*6) an.compute_corr_spectra(min_no_pairs=6, min_no_days=30)
The above operation might require a long time and occupy a relatively large space on disk (even more than the size of the original data, depending on the target sampling rate fs). Three directories (fft, psd, cross-spectra) will be created in $save, where the result of the processing is stored.
Before preparing the final data-set for the inversion, we need to calculate inter-station phase velocities. We did so by using
seislib.an.an_velocity.AmbientNoiseVelocity
. The retrieved dispersion curves are stored in /path/to/dispcurves:an.prepare_inversion(src_velocity='/path/to/dispcurves', freqmin=1/15, freqmax=0.4, nfreq=300)
The above will prepare the data-set needed by the inversion, using a frequency range of 1/15 - 0.4 Hz, sampled by 300 points so that each frequency is equally spaced from each other on logarithmic scale. The data-set, built for each grid cell individually, is automatically saved to $save/inversion_dataset. To retrieve one attenuation curve for grid cell, we can now run:
an.inversion(alphamin=5e-8, alphamax=1e-4, nalpha=350, min_no_pairs=6)
that will search for the optimal frequency-dependent attenuation coefficient in the range \(5 \times 10^{-8}\) - \(1 \times 10^{-4}\) 1/m via a 2-D grid search carried out over \(\alpha\) and frequency. The \(\alpha\) range is sampled through 350 points equally spaced on a logarithmic scale. All grid cells for which data are not available from at least 6 station pairs are discarded.
The above will save the results in $save/results. These can be visualized in the form of maps at different periods. In the following, we calculate an attenuation map at the period of 4 s, parameterizing it as an equal-area grid of pixel-size = 1°. Only the grid cells of this equal-area grid for which at least 2 attenuation curves are available (remember that we used a 50% overlapping parameterization for the calculation of the attenuation curves) will be attributed an attenuation value. (This behaviour is controlled by the parameter min_overlapping_pixels). Once the attenuation map is created, we plot it:
grid, attenuation = an.get_attenuation_map(period=4, cell_size=1, min_overlapping_pixels=2) an.plot_map(grid, attenuation)
Note
Once you have prepared the inversion data set by
prepare_inversion()
(and you are satisfied by the parameters passed therein), you can free the previously occupied space on disk by deleting the directories $save/ffts, $save/psd, since they will not be used in the subsequent inversion.- Attributes
- srcstr
Absolute path to the directory containing the files associated with the continuous seismograms
- savedirstr
Absolute path to the directory where the results are saved
- fileslist
List of files to be processed to calculate the attenuation curves
- verbosebool
Whether or not information on progress is printed in the console
- stationsdict
Coordinates of the station pairs that can be employed to retrieve dispersion curves (can be accessed after calling the method prepare_data)
- parameterizationdict
Information on the parameterization of the study area, consisting of a dictionary object of the form:
{ 'grid': np.array([[lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2], [lat3, lat4, lon3, lon4] [etc.]]), 'no_stations': np.array([int1, int2, etc.]), 'station_codes': [[sta1, sta2, sta3, etc.], [sta4, sta5, sta6, etc.]] }
where lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2 identify the first block of the parameterization, int1 is the number of stations in the first block, and sta1, sta2, sta3, etc. are the associated station codes.
Methods
colormesh
(mesh, c, ax, **kwargs)Adaptation of matplotlib.pyplot.pcolormesh to an (adaptive) equal-area grid.
compute_corr_spectra
([min_no_pairs, ...])Computes the corr-spectra for each pair of receivers in each grid cell of the parameterization.
compute_ffts
([fs, window_length])Computes the Fourier transforms for all the continuous data.
contour
(mesh, c, ax[, smoothing])Adaptation of matplotlib.pyplot.contour to the (adaptive) equal area grid
contourf
(mesh, c, ax[, smoothing])Adaptation of matplotlib.pyplot.contourf to an (adaptive) equal-area grid
get_attenuation_map
(period, cell_size[, ...])Calculates an attenuation maps from the inversion results.
Retrieves the files to be processed for extracting Rayleigh-wave attenuation on the vertical component.
get_stations_coords
(files)Retrieves the geographic coordinates associated with each receiver
inversion
([alphamin, alphamax, nalpha, ...])Carries out the inversion for Rayleigh-wave attenuation
parameterize
(cell_size[, overlap, ...])Creates the equal area (possibly overlapping) parameterization used in the subsequent analysis.
plot_azimuthal_coverage
(ipixel[, ax, bins, show])Plots a polar histogram of the azimuthal coverage for one pixel
plot_cost
(ipixel[, ax, alphamin, alphamax, ...])Plots the values of cost obtained in the inversion of a given pixel
plot_map
(mesh, c[, ax, projection, ...])Displays an attenuation map.
plot_stations
([ax, show, oceans_color, ...])Maps the seismic receivers for which data are available
prepare_data
([recompute])Saves to disk the geographic coordinates associated with each receiver.
prepare_inversion
(src_velocity[, freqmin, ...])Prepares the data set to be inverted for Rayleigh-wave attenuation.
- classmethod colormesh(mesh, c, ax, **kwargs)
Adaptation of matplotlib.pyplot.pcolormesh to an (adaptive) equal-area grid.
- Parameters
- meshndarray of shape (n, 4)
Equal area grid, consisting of n pixels described by lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2
- carray-like of shape (n,)
Values to plot in each grid cell
- axcartopy.mpl.geoaxes.GeoAxesSubplot
If not None, the receivers are plotted on the GeoAxesSubplot instance. Otherwise, a new figure and GeoAxesSubplot instance is created
- **kwargsdict, optional
Additional inputs passed to seislib.plotting.plotting.colormesh
- Returns
- imgInstance of matplotlib.collections.QuadMesh
- compute_corr_spectra(min_no_pairs=6, min_no_days=30, ram_available=9000, ram_split=4)
Computes the corr-spectra for each pair of receivers in each grid cell of the parameterization. In practice, all the Fourier transform associated with the continuous seismograms found in a given cell are first loaded into memory. Then, they are used to calculate the average power-spectral density of the grid-cell, which is then used as a normalization term of the cross-correlations (see [1], [2], and [3]).
Two directories are created: $self.savedir/corr_spectra and $self.savedir/psd, where the cross-spectra and the average psd will be saved.
- Parameters
- min_no_pairsint
Minimum number of pairs of receivers in a given grid cell available for computing the cross-spectrum. Grid cells not reaching this number are not processed. Default is 6. Larger values yield more robust estimates of Rayleigh-wave attenuation [3]. Smaller values are suggested against
- min_no_daysint, float
Minimum number of simultaneous recordings available for a given station pair to be considered for the calculation of the cross- spectrum. Station pairs not reaching this number do not count as available station pairs (see min_no_pairs)
- ram_availableint, float
RAM available (in Mb) for the analysis. The parameter allows for estabilishing, in a given pixel, if all the Fourier transforms related to the pixel can be loaded into memory or a generator is otherwise required. Lower values are suggested to avoid MemoryErrors, although they would result in a longer computational time. Default is 9000 (i.e., 9 Gb)
- ram_splitint
When the (estimated) RAM necessary to load the Fourier transforms of a given pixel into memory exceeds ram_available, the task is splitted in ram_split operations. Larger values help avoiding MemoryErrors, but result in a longer computational time. Default is 4
References
- 1
Boschi et al., (2019). On seismic ambient noise cross-correlation and surface-wave attenuation. GJI
- 2
Boschi et al., (2020). Erratum: On seismic ambient noise cross-correlation and surface-wave attenuation. GJI
- 3(1,2)
Magrini & Boschi (2021). Surface‐Wave Attenuation From Seismic Ambient Noise: Numerical Validation and Application. JGR
- compute_ffts(fs=1, window_length=3600)
Computes the Fourier transforms for all the continuous data.
A directory $self.savedir/fft will be created, and all Fourier transforms will be saved within it. Within the same directory, two other files will be created: (i) the frequency vector associated with each Fourier transform, named frequencies.npy, and (ii) a dictionary object where the starting and ending times of all continuous seismograms are stored, named times.pickle
- Parameters
- fsint, float
Target sampling rate of the continuous seismograms. If some seismogram is characterized by a different sampling rate, it will be resampled
- window_lenghtint
Length of the time windows (in s) used to perform the cross-correlations
- .. warning::
The operation might take a relatively large space on disk, depending on the amount of continuous seismograms available and on the sampling rate chosen. (Even more than the size of the original data.) This, however, is necessary to speed up (consistently) all the subsequent operations, involving cross-correlations and calculation of the average power spectral density of each sub-array.
- classmethod contour(mesh, c, ax, smoothing=None, **kwargs)
Adaptation of matplotlib.pyplot.contour to the (adaptive) equal area grid
- Parameters
- meshndarray of shape (n, 4)
Equal area grid, consisting of n pixels described by lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2
- carray-like of shape (n,)
Values to plot in each grid cell
- axcartopy.mpl.geoaxes.GeoAxesSubplot
If not None, the receivers are plotted on the GeoAxesSubplot instance. Otherwise, a new figure and GeoAxesSubplot instance is created
- smoothingfloat, optional
Value passed to scipy.ndimage.filters.gaussian_filter and used to obtain a smooth representation of c (default is None)
- **kwargsdict, optional
Additional inputs passed to seislib.plotting.plotting.colormesh
- Returns
- imgInstance of matplotlib.contour.QuadContourSet
- classmethod contourf(mesh, c, ax, smoothing=None, **kwargs)
Adaptation of matplotlib.pyplot.contourf to an (adaptive) equal-area grid
- Parameters
- meshndarray of shape (n, 4)
Equal area grid, consisting of n pixels described by lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2
- carray-like of shape (n,)
Values to plot in each grid cell
- axcartopy.mpl.geoaxes.GeoAxesSubplot
If not None, the receivers are plotted on the GeoAxesSubplot instance. Otherwise, a new figure and GeoAxesSubplot instance is created
- smoothingfloat, optional
Value passed to scipy.ndimage.filters.gaussian_filter and used to obtain a smooth representation of c (default is None)
- **kwargsdict, optional
Additional inputs passed to seislib.plotting.plotting.colormesh
- Returns
- imgInstance of matplotlib.contour.QuadContourSet
- get_attenuation_map(period, cell_size, min_overlapping_pixels=2)
Calculates an attenuation maps from the inversion results.
The map will be parameterized using an equal-area grid, built thorugh
seislib.tomography.grid.EqualAreaGrid
- Parameters
- periodfloat, int
- cell_sizefloat, int
Size of each grid cell (in degrees) of the resulting parameterization
- min_overlapping_pixels: int
At a given period, each value of \(\alpha\) in the resulting map will be given by a weighted average of the attenuation curves retrieved in the inversion (the weights are determined by the number of station pairs used in the inversion of each sub-array). This parameters determines the minimum number of attenuation curves used to constrain \(\alpha\) in a given pixel of the resulting map. Default is 2
- Returns
- new_meshndarray of shape (n, 4)
Parameterization of the final map, where each row corresponds to a grid cell and the columns define its boundaries (lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2)
- attenuationndarray of shape (n,)
Value of attenuation associated with each grid cell of new_mesh
- get_files()
Retrieves the files to be processed for extracting Rayleigh-wave attenuation on the vertical component.
- Returns
- fileslist of str
e.g., [‘net1.sta1.00.BHZ.sac’, ‘net1.sta2.00.BHZ.sac’]
- get_stations_coords(files)
Retrieves the geographic coordinates associated with each receiver
- Parameters
- files: list of str
Names of the files corresponding with the continuous seismograms, located in the src directory
- Returns
- coordsdict
each key corresponds to a station code ($network_code.$station_code) and each value is a tuple containing latitude and longitude of the station. For example:
{ net1.sta1 : (lat1, lon1), net1.sta2 : (lat2, lon2), net2.sta3 : (lat3, lon3) }
- inversion(alphamin=5e-07, alphamax=0.0005, nalpha=350, min_no_pairs=6)
Carries out the inversion for Rayleigh-wave attenuation
For each pickle file available in $self.savedir/inversion_dataset, an inversion is carried out by minimizing the misfit between the corr- spectra and the corresponding Bessel functions, so as to retrieve one attenuation curve for each pixel [1].
The results (one attenuation curve per pickle file), are saved at $self.savedir/results, and consist of (i) best_alphas.pickle: a dictionary object containing, for each grid cell, the retrieved attenuation curve and the number of station pairs used to constrain it; (ii) frequencies.npy: frequency vector associated with the attenuation curves; (iii) pixel$d.pickle (where $d indicates the index of the grid cell in $self.savedir/parameterization.pickle): dictionary object containing, along with the information stored in (i), the minimized misfit matrix to retrieve the attenuation curve.
- Parameters
- alphamin, alphamaxfloat
Attenuation range (in 1/m) within which the best-fitting attenuation is sought as a function of frequency. Defaults are 5e-7 and 5e-4
- nalphaint
Number of values of \(\alpha\) used to subdivide the attenuation range geometrically (see numpy.geomspace). Default is 350
- min_no_pairsint
Minimum number of stations pairs required to carry out the inversion. If, in a given sub-array, the number of available data is smaller than this number, the pixel is not inverted for. Default is 6. Smaller values are suggested against.
References
- 1
Magrini & Boschi (2021). Surface‐Wave Attenuation From Seismic Ambient Noise: Numerical Validation and Application. JGR
- parameterize(cell_size, overlap=0.5, min_no_stations=6, regular_grid=False, plotting=True, plot_resolution='110m')
Creates the equal area (possibly overlapping) parameterization used in the subsequent analysis. The equal-area grid is created through the :class:seislib.tomography.grid.EqualAreaGrid class of seislib.
The parameterization is saved at $savedir/parameterization.pickle and set as an attribute of the
AmbientNoiseAttenuation
instance under the name parameterization. The corresponding dictionary object includes information on the parameterization of the study area, and has the form:{ 'grid': np.array([[lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2], [lat3, lat4, lon3, lon4] [etc.]]), 'no_stations': np.array([int1, int2, etc.]), 'station_codes': [[sta1, sta2, sta3, etc.], [sta4, sta5, sta6, etc.]] }
where lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2 identify the first block of the parameterization, int1 is the number of stations in the first block, and sta1, sta2, sta3, etc. are the associated station codes.
- Parameters
- cell_sizefloat
Size of each grid cell of the resulting parameterization (in degrees)
- overlapfloat
If > 0, the parameterization will be overlapping in space by the specified extent [1]. Default is 0.5
- min_no_stationsint
Minimum number of stations falling within each grid-cell. If the value is not reached, the grid-cell in question is removed from the parameterization
- regular_gridbool
If False (default), the study area is discretized using an equal-area parameterization. Otherwise, a regular grid is employed.
- plottingbool
If True, a figure on the resulting parameterization is displayed
- plot_resolution{‘10m’, ‘50m’, ‘110m’}
Resolution of the Earth features displayed in the figure. Passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature. Valid arguments are ‘110m’, ‘50m’, ‘10m’. Default is ‘110m’
References
- 1
Magrini et al., (2021). Rayleigh-wave attenuation across the conterminous United States in the microseism frequency band. Scientific Reports
- plot_azimuthal_coverage(ipixel, ax=None, bins=None, show=True, **kwargs)
Plots a polar histogram of the azimuthal coverage for one pixel
- Parameters
- ipixelint
Index of the pixel used in the inversion for alpha
- axmatplotlib instance of PolarAxesSubplot, optional
If None, a new figure and PolarAxesSubplot is created
- binsarray-like, optional
Azimuthal bins (in degrees). If None, bins of 30 degrees between 0 and 360 are used
- showbool
If False, ax is returned. Else, the figure is displayed. Default is True
- **kwargsdict, optional
Additional arguments passed to matplotlib.pyplot.bar
- Returns
- None if show is True, else ax
- plot_cost(ipixel, ax=None, alphamin=None, alphamax=None, freqmin=None, freqmax=None, show=True, curve_dict={}, **kwargs)
Plots the values of cost obtained in the inversion of a given pixel
- Parameters
- ipixelint
Index of the pixel used in the inversion for alpha
- axmatplotlib instance of AxesSubplot, optional
If None, a new figure and ax is created
- showbool
If False, ax is returned. Else, the figure is displayed.
- alphamin, alphamaxfloat, optional
Alpha range used to bound the yaxis in the figure. If None, the whole alpha range used in the inversion is displayed
- freqmin, freqmaxfloat, optional
Frequency range used to bound the xaxis in the figure. If None, the whole Frequency range used in the inversion is displayed
- showbool
If False, ax is returned. Else, the figure is displayed. Default is True
- curve_dictdict, optional
Arguments passed to matplotlib.pyplot.plot, to control the aspect of the attenuation curve
- **kwargsdict, optional
Additional arguments passed to matplotlib.pyplot.pcolormesh
- Returns
- If show is True, None, else a (2,) tuple containing
- matplotlib.collections.QuadMesh (associated with pcolormesh);
- matplotlib.pyplot.colorbar
- classmethod plot_map(mesh, c, ax=None, projection='Mercator', map_boundaries=None, bound_map=True, colorbar=True, show=True, style='colormesh', add_features=False, resolution='110m', cbar_dict={}, **kwargs)
Displays an attenuation map.
- Parameters
- meshndarray of shape (n, 4)
Grid cells in SeisLib format, consisting of n pixels described by lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2 (in degrees).
- cndarray of shape (n,)
Values associated with the grid cells (mesh)
- axcartopy.mpl.geoaxes.GeoAxesSubplot
If not None, c is plotted on the GeoAxesSubplot instance. Otherwise, a new figure and GeoAxesSubplot instance is created
- projectionstr
Name of the geographic projection used to create the GeoAxesSubplot. (Visit the cartopy website for a list of valid projection names.) If ax is not None, projection is ignored. Default is ‘Mercator’
- map_boundariesiterable of floats, shape (4,), optional
Lonmin, lonmax, latmin, latmax (in degrees) defining the extent of the map
- bound_mapbool
If True, the map boundaries will be automatically determined. Default is False
- colorbarbool
If True (default), a colorbar associated with c is displayed on the side of the map
- showbool
If True (default), the map will be showed once generated
- style{‘colormesh’, ‘contourf’, ‘contour’}
Possible options are ‘colormesh’, ‘contourf’, and ‘contour’. Default is ‘colormesh’, corresponding to
colormesh()
.- add_featuresbool
If True, natural Earth features will be added to the GeoAxesSubplot through
seislib.plotting.plotting.add_earth_features()
. Default is False. If ax is None, it is automatically set to True- resolution{‘10m’, ‘50m’, ‘110m’}
Resolution of the Earth features displayed in the figure. Passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature. Valid arguments are ‘110m’, ‘50m’, ‘10m’. Default is ‘110m’. Ignored if ax is not None.
- cbar_dictdict, optional
Keyword arguments passed to matplotlib.colorbar.ColorbarBase
- **kwargsdict, optional
Additional inputs passed to the method defined by style.
- Returns
- None if show is False else an instance of
- matplotlib.collections.QuadMesh (together with an instance
- of matplotlib.colorbar.Colorbar, if colorbar is True)
- plot_stations(ax=None, show=True, oceans_color='water', lands_color='land', edgecolor='k', projection='Mercator', resolution='110m', color_by_network=True, legend_dict={}, **kwargs)
Maps the seismic receivers for which data are available
- Parameters
- axcartopy.mpl.geoaxes.GeoAxesSubplot
If not None, the receivers are plotted on the GeoAxesSubplot instance. Otherwise, a new figure and GeoAxesSubplot instance is created
- showbool
If True, the plot is shown. Otherwise, a GeoAxesSubplot instance is returned. Default is True
- oceans_color, lands_colorstr
Color of oceans and lands. The arguments are ignored if ax is not None. Otherwise, they are passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature (to the argument ‘facecolor’). Defaults are ‘water’ and ‘land’
- edgecolorstr
Color of the boundaries between, e.g., lakes and land. The argument is ignored if ax is not None. Otherwise, it is passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature (to the argument ‘edgecolor’). Default is ‘k’ (black)
- projectionstr
Name of the geographic projection used to create the GeoAxesSubplot. (Visit the cartopy website for a list of valid projection names.) If ax is not None, projection is ignored. Default is ‘Mercator’
- resolution{‘10m’, ‘50m’, ‘110m’}
Resolution of the Earth features displayed in the figure. Passed to cartopy.feature.NaturalEarthFeature. Valid arguments are ‘110m’, ‘50m’, ‘10m’. Default is ‘110m’. Ignored if ax is not None.
- color_by_networkbool
If True, each seismic network will have a different color in the resulting map, and a legend will be displayed. Otherwise, all stations will have the same color. Default is True
- legend_dictdict, optional
Dictionary of keyword arguments passed to matplotlib.pyplot.legend
- **kwargsdict, optional
Additional keyword arguments passed to matplotlib.pyplot.scatter
- Returns
- None if show is True, else ax, i.e. the GeoAxesSubplot
- prepare_data(recompute=False)
Saves to disk the geographic coordinates associated with each receiver. These are saved to self.savedir/stations.pickle
The stations.pickle file contains a dictionary object where each key corresponds to a station code ($network_code.$station_code) and each value is a tuple containing latitude and longitude of the station. For example:
{ net1.sta1 : (lat1, lon1), net1.sta2 : (lat2, lon2), net2.sta3 : (lat3, lon3) }
If self.savedir/parameterization.pickle exists, the corresponding dictionary object is set as an attribute of the
AmbientNoiseAttenuation
instance under the name parameterization. This includes information on the parameterization of the study area, and has the form:{ 'grid': np.array([[lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2], [lat3, lat4, lon3, lon4] [etc.]]), 'no_stations': np.array([int1, int2, etc.]), 'station_codes': [[sta1, sta2, sta3, etc.], [sta4, sta5, sta6, etc.]] }
where lat1, lat2, lon1, lon2 identify the first block of the parameterization, int1 is the number of stations in the first block, and sta1, sta2, sta3, etc. are the associated station codes.
- Parameters
- recomputebool
If True, the station coordinates and times will be removed from disk and recalculated. Otherwise (default), if they are present, they will be loaded into memory, avoiding any computation. This parameter should be set to True whenever one has added new files to the source directory
- prepare_inversion(src_velocity, freqmin=0.05, freqmax=0.4, nfreq=300, smooth=False, smoothing_window=25, smoothing_poly=2)
Prepares the data set to be inverted for Rayleigh-wave attenuation.
The data set used in the inversion, for each station pair, consists of (i) envelope of the cross-spectrum, (ii) envelope of the associated Bessel function \(J_0\), (iii) phase velocity, (iv) inter-station distance. These objects are collected, for each grid cell associated with the parameterization, for all station pairs available, and stored into a dictionary object that is written on disk at $self.savedir/inversion_dataset. The individual dictionaries are saved in the pickle format and named after the index of the grid cell in the belonging parameterization.
- Parameters
- src_velocitystr
Absolute path to the directory containing the phase-velocity dispersion curves associated with the station pairs for which cross-spectra are available
- freqmin, freqmaxfloat
Frequency range to analyse. Default is 0.05 and 0.4 Hz
- nfreqfloat
The frequency range in question will be subdivided in nfreq points geometrically spaced (see numpy.geomspace)
- smoothbool
If True, the cross-spectra envelopes are smoothing with a Savitzky-Golay filter. Default is False
- smoothing_windowodd int
Passed to scipy.signal.savgol_filter. Default is 25
- smoothing_polyint
Passed to scipy.signal.savgol_filter. Default is 2
Lower-Level Support
This module provides useful functions for the processing of continuous
recordings of seismic ambient noise. All these functions are called,
under the hood, by seislib.an.AmbientNoiseVelocity
and
seislib.an.AmbientNoiseAttenuation
.
- seislib.an._an_processing.extract_dispcurve(frequencies, corr_spectrum, interstation_distance, ref_curve, freqmin=0, freqmax=1, cmin=1, cmax=5, filt_width=3, filt_height=1.0, x_step=None, pick_threshold=2, horizontal_polarization=False, manual_picking=False, plotting=False, savefig=None, sta1=None, sta2=None)
Function for picking the phase-velocity curve from the zero crossings of the frequency-domain representation of the stacked cross correlation.
The picking procedure is based on drawing an ellipse around each zero crossing and assigning a weight according to the distance from the zero crossing to the ellipse boundary. The weights are then stacked in a phase-velocity - frequency plane and a smoothed version of the zero-crossing branches is obtained. Because of the similarity to a kernel-density estimate, the elliptical shapes are called kernels in this code.
This procedure reduces the influence of spurious zero crossings due to data noise, makes it easier to identify the well constrained parts of the phase- velocity curve and to obtain a smooth dispersion curve. A reference dispersion curve must be given to guide the algorithm in finding the correct phase-velocity branch to start the picking, because parallel branches are subject to a \(2 \pi\) ambiguity.
- Parameters
- frequenciesndarray of shape (n,)
Frequency vector of the cross-spectrum
- corr_spectrumndarray of shape (n,)
Real or complex-valued array containing the cross-correlation. (Only the real part is used.)
- interstation_distancefloat
Inter-station distance in km
- ref_curve: ndarray of shape (m, 2)
Reference phase velocity curve, where the 1st column is frequency, the 2nd is velocity in km/s. The final phase-velocity curve is only picked within the frequency range spanned by the reference curve.
- freqmin, freqmaxfloat
Restricts the zero crossings to the corresponding frequency range. Values in the frequency vector outside this range are ignored. Default values are 0 and 1
- cmin, cmaxfloat (in km/s)
Min and max (estimated) surface-wave velocities. Only zero crossings corresponding to velocities within this range are considered. Default values are 1 and 5
- filt_widthint
Controls the width of the smoothing window. Corresponds to the number of zero crossings that should be within one window. Default is 3
- filt_heightfloat
Controls the height of the smoothing window. Corresponds to the portion of a cycle jump. Should never exceed 1, otherwise it will smooth over more than one cycle. Default is 1
- x_step: float
Controls the step width for the picking routine along with the x (frequency) axis. Expressed in fractions of the expected step width between two zero crossings. If not provided, it is chosen automatically
- horizontal_polarizationbool
If True, the zero crossings from the cross-spectrum are compared to the difference function \(J_0 - J_2\) (Bessel functions of the first kind of order 0 and 2 respectively) [1]. Should be True for Love and radially-polarized Rayleigh waves. If False (default) only \(J_0\) is used
- manual_pickingbool
If True, the user is required to pick the dispersion curve manually. The picking is carried out through an interactive plot.
- plottingbool
If True, a control plot is created and information on the picking procedure are printed. Default is False
- savefigstr
Absolute path. If not None, and if plotting is True, the control plot is saved on disk at the absolute path provided
- Returns
- crossingsndarray of shape (k, 2)
2-D array containing frequencies (1st column) and corresponding velocities (2nd column, in km/s) at the zero crossings used to pick the dispersion curve
- Dispersion curvendarray of shape (l, 2)
Picked phase-velocity curve, where the 1st column is frequency and the 2nd is velocity in km/s
References
- 1
Kästle et al. 2016, Two-receiver measurements of phase velocity: cross-validation of ambient-noise and earthquake-based observations, GJI
- seislib.an._an_processing.get_zero_crossings(freq, xcorr, dist, freqmin=0, freqmax=1, cmin=1, cmax=5, horizontal_polarization=False, return_indexes=False)
Returns the zero crossings from the smoothed complex cross-correlation spectrum.
- Parameters
- freqndarray of shape (n,)
Frequency vector
- xcorrndarray of shape (n,)
Real or complex-valued array containing the cross-correlation. (Only the real part is used.)
- distfloat
Interstation distance in km
- freqmin, freqmaxfloat
Restricts the zero crossings to the corresponding frequency range. Values in frequency vector outside this range are ignored. Default values are 0 and 1
- cmin, cmaxfloat (in km/s)
Min and max (estimated) surface-wave velocities. Only zero crossings corresponding to velocities within this range are considered. Default values are 1 and 5
- horizontal_polarizationbool
If True, the zero crossings from the cross-spectrum are compared to the difference function \(J_0 - J_2\) (Bessel functions of the first kind of order 0 and 2 respectively) [1]. Should be True for Love and radially-polarized Rayleigh waves. If False (default) only \(J_0\) is used
- return_indexesbool
If True, the different branches in the zero-crossings are enumerated and returned. Default is False
- Returns
- If return_indexes is False (default):
- ndarray of shape (m, 2)
2-D array containing frequencies (1st column) and corresponding velocities (2nd column, in km/s) at the zero crossings
- Otherwise:
- ndarray of shape (m, 3)
Where the third column is the index corresponding to each branch
References
- 1
Kästle et al. 2016, Two-receiver measurements of phase velocity: cross- validation of ambient-noise and earthquake-based observations, GJI
- seislib.an._an_processing.noisecorr(tr1, tr2, window_length=3600, overlap=0.5, whiten=True, psd=False, waterlevel=1e-10)
Cross correlation of continuous seismograms.
The two seismograms are first sliced to a common time window and, if they are characterized by two different sampling rate, the one with the larger sampling rate is downsampled. The two seismograms are then subdivided into (possibly overlapping) time windows, which are cross correlated in the frequency domain. The cross correlations are then stacked and ensemble averaged to obtain the final cross spectrum in the frequency domain.
- Parameters
- tr1, tr2obspy.Trace
Continuous seismograms to be cross-correlated
- window_lenghtfloat
Length of the time windows (in seconds) used to perform the cross correlations. Default is 3600
- overlapfloat
Should be >=0 and <1 (strictly smaller than 1). Rules the extent of overlap between one time window and the following [2]. Default is 0.5
- whitenbool
Whether or not the individual cross correlations are normalized by whitening [1]. Default is True
- psdbool
Whether or not the individual cross correlations are normalized by the average psd. Default is False. If whiten is True, psd is ignored
- waterlevelfloat
Only applied if whiten is True. It prevents ZeroDivisionError. Default is 1e-10
- Returns
- freqndarray of shape (n,)
Frequency associated with the cross spectrum. It is calculated as np.fft.rfftfreq(win_samples, dt), where dt is the time delta in the input seismograms, and win_samples is int(window_length / dt)
- corr_spectrumndarray of shape (n,)
Ensemble average of the individual cross correlations
- Raises
- NonFiniteDataException
If one of the two traces contains non-finite elements
- TimeSpanException
If the input traces do not span common times
References
- seislib.an._an_processing.velocity_filter(freq, corr_spectrum, interstation_distance, cmin=1.0, cmax=5.0, p=0.05)
Filters a frequency-domain cross-spectrum so as to remove all signal corresponding to a specified velocity range.
In practice, the procedure (i) inverse-Fourier transforms the cross spectrum to the time domain; (ii) it zero-pads the resulting time-domain signal at times corresponding to velocities outside the specified velocity range by applying a cosine taper (the same cosine taper is applied at the two ends of the interval); (iii) a forward-Fourier transform brings back the padded cross correlation to the frequency domain [1].
- Parameters
- freqndarray of shape (n,)
Frequency vector
- cross_spectrumndarray of shape (n,)
Complex-valued frequency-domain cross_spectrum
- interstation_distancefloat (in km)
- cmin, cmaxfloat (in km/s)
Velocity range. Default values are 1 and 5
- pfloat
Decimal percentage of cosine taper. Default is 0.05 (5%)
- Returns
- corrndarray of shape (n,)
Filtered cross-spectrum
References
- 1
Sadeghisorkhani et al. 2018, GSpecDisp: a matlab GUI package for phase-velocity dispersion measurements from ambient-noise correlations, Computers & Geosciences